Cosmology

We are living in holographic universe ?

“whether you call it matter , or cellular or atomic or quantum its all one and the same . Quantum information is evaluated with the quantum brain ”                                                               – Ahemed Hulusi            Modern physics is full of crazy ideas . One of crazy ideas is about “holographic universe “. What if I say everything around you is just a illusion and there is no physical laws exist in three dimensional universe . It sounds totally insane . But holographic principle tries to explain it in different way . This principle is most controversial among scientists but although most of thinkers believe in it . You might have seen hologram . You notice that through two – dimensional surface , you are able to see three dimensional illusionary picture . Holographic principle of universe also works in same way .

What is holographic principle of universe ? 

Holographic principle is statement or idea  ,states that total information of three- dimensional is encoded on two – dimensional surface . If we talk about total information of universe (3-D) , then 2-D surface might be cosmological horizon of universe . In other words , what we see or hear around us in 3-D universe is not fundamental and is just reconstructed from behavior of ‘matter’ and that information already encoded or scripted on 2-D cosmological horizon just as hologram in which we see three dimensional illusion because information encoded on 2D surface of hologram so cleverly .

What does it mean if I  say “we live in holographic universe “?

We get idea about it that information of region of space or volume is encoded on 2D surface of of that region .That means we can easily interpret information of 3D region just by describing the information of 2D surface .

Let’s see example in daily life to understand it in more simpler way . Suppose a building has guard who keeps information about people who enter into build . Information collected by guard ( 2D) tells   the number of people in building (3D) . Here we learn information of volume by interpreting the surface . It shouldn’t be misinterpreted that universe is exactly as hologram . Universe is not exactly as hologram but instead its duality of information of matter . For example , suppose you see yourself in mirror , image you see in mirror isn’t exactly same as you but bit  different , such as your left hand looks right hand in image but even though you figure out which is left and which one is right hand in image just by looking yourself . There is duality between you and your image formed in mirror , that is , you predict or define the position of image on basis of information  you collected in your brain by looking yourself . It doesn’t mean both are same .

Holographic principle in quantum gravity – 

Holographic principle was originally hypothesized from string theory , a revolutionary theory of quantum gravity (yet to be proved ) . Let’s define and understand holographic principle according to string theory . It states that gravity in universe is come from thin vibrating , one dimensionl string . This strings also carry the information of events take place in 3D universe . We can say , information about everything around us is hidden in 2D flattened universe. This principle was first proposed by Gerard ‘t Hooft and later improved by Leonard Susskind .

Let’s imagine that volume have certain amount of particle . If we increase number of particle in given region of volume , entropy will increase . On increasing the particle continuously , we eventually reach at point point , there would be maximum entropy that it collapses into blackhole just as what happens in real black hole . In other words we can say , maximum entropy in given region of volume is proportion to surface area of it . We know that entropy is measure of information , therefore we get total information in volume (3D ) is encoded at surface . Everything in the volume is illusionary and only the information on surface is real .

How can say we are living in holographic universe ?

It cited above that information of 3D universe is stored 2D cosmological surface . You might ask  lot of question here.  If universe is holographic in nature , then where is ultimate cosmological horizon , from which , information is projected into three dimensional universe , so we hear and see things around us ? Is two -dimensional cosmological horizon real or  imaginary ? To answer this question ,first  we need to understand how  scientist say we are living in holographic universe .

Description lies in black holes . As far as we know , black hole is biggest storage of universe which can hold ultimate data of universe . Black holes have three essential properties; called mass , electric charge and angular momentum . We can describe age of black holes by knowing these three properties . Black holes hold all information of millions of dead star and matters that suck into it . But all pieces of  information lost in black holes . It should be noted that anything can be converted into black holes even bucket full of sand or mobile you hold in your hand read this article . It depends on randomness of constituent particles that made these objects such as bucket full of sand or your mobile . We measure the randomness of particles under special  term called  “entropy” . Entropy is measure of of randomness of particles . Particles in hot gases have higher entropy than entropy of particles of sand in bucket . Famous scientist Jacob Bakenstein showed that  Black holes must have maximum entropy and it is more than than anything else in the universe . If we keep increase randomness of particles of hot gases in given volumes , we would reach at certain point at which , hot gases eventually collapse into black hole. By calculation , Jacob found that entropy of black holes is directly proportional to area of event horizon of black holes.  I described earlier that entropy is also measure of amount of information to describe system . All information inside black hole must be stored at event horizon of black hole . It gives us clear picture that all objects – black hole, bucket full of sand , hot gases in volume .your mobile ,  you , me and all three dimensional object’s information must be encoded and stored at two dimensional ultimate  surface of universe. This ultimatily gives impression of hologram .   All physical laws , whether it works in any dimension , must have description on somewhere on 2 dimensional surface . We can describe those physical laws which are beyond our sight and applicable in higher dimension by just studying encoded description on 2D surface .

Discoveries that support “holographic universe” hypothesis . 

Scientist from all over the world are trying to prove this hypothesis .Lots of research paper have been submitted back in time to support it . But we will discuss about research paper submitted recently in “Physics Review Letters” by Niayesh Afshordi and his team . They attempted to give observational test of holographic cosmology  and try to reconcile big bang model with “holographic universe” hypothesis .

“We are proposing using this holographic universe, which is a very different model of the Big Bang than the popularly accepted one that relies on gravity and inflation,” said Niayesh Afshordi, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Waterloo, and lead author in the study. “Each of these models makes distinct predictions that we can test as we refine our data and improve our theoretical understanding – all within the next five years.”

“The key to understanding quantum gravity is understanding field theory in one lower dimension,” said Afshordi. “Holography is like a Rosetta Stone, translating between known theories of quantum fields without gravity and the uncharted territory of quantum gravity itself.”

Holography, with its more simplified approach, allows the researchers to study the dense conditions of quantum gravity during the Big Bang at its boundary, which provides as much information as studying the Big Bang itself.

Read more at : https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-01/uow-sre013017.php and https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.041301

Conclusion : 

Scientist are not exactly sure about holographic model of universe because we don’t have experimentally proved quantum theory of gravity to test it . “But if the holographic principle is right, we may have to confront the notion that our universe is a kind of cosmic phantom—that the real action is happening elsewhere, on a boundary that we have not yet begun to map” says Kate Becker, senior researcher for NOVA

I am science enthusiast and I love to write blogs for students and youths who love science. I have deep interest in astronomy and cosmology. I believe that science is most effective tool to serve humankind.

.

1 COMMENTS

Comments are closed.

I am science enthusiast and I love to write blogs for students and youths who love science. I have deep interest in astronomy and cosmology. I believe that science is most effective tool to serve humankind. .